Antioxidant properties of two novel lipophilic gallic acid derivatives
Keywords:Antioxidant activity, Free radical scavenging, Gallic acid derivatives, Lipophilicity, Oil-in-water emulsion, Rancimat test
The effectiveness of two lipophilic derivatives of the natural phenol, gallic acid (GA), synthesized using methyl gallate as starting material was investigated. The antioxidant activities of these novel phenolics compared to GA, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were evaluated in bulk oil, emulsion and the DPPH systems. The results showed that the new compounds effectively delayed lipid oxidation much better than GA and other antioxidants under Rancimat (100-140 °C) and emulsion tests. In the bulk oil system at 65 °C, they still behaved better than GA, but TBHQ had the highest activity. Thus, replacing the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group on GA by covalently linking sterically hindered phenols to its phenyl ring increased its lipophilicity and also resulted in synergistic effects which improved overall antioxidant activity through stabilization of the phenoxy radical. These new antioxidant variants satisfy industrial demands for bioactive ingredients with strong antioxidant potentials under different food processing conditions.
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