Enzymatic pre-treatment in cold pressing: Influence on flaxseed, apricot kernel and grape seed oils
Keywords:Apricot kernel, Bioactive compounds, Cold pressing, Enzymes, Flaxseed, Grapeseed
A commercial enzyme preparation consisting of pectolytic, cellulotic and hemicellulotic enzymes was applied to the oil extraction by cold pressing from apricot kernel, flaxseed and grape seed. The effects of enzyme pre-treatment varied depending on the different oil seed used as raw material. Although the increase in free fatty acidity can be considered as a negative effect (from 0.37 to 0.52), the decrease in peroxide number and p-anisidine values, increase in oil yield (22.75%), higher levels of total carotenoids and tocopherols, as well as a remarkable increase in phenolic content (x1.68) and radical scavenging effect (including hydrophilic and lipophilic-induced and total antioxidant capacity) showed that the use of enzyme application in the cold pressing of apricot kernel oil would be beneficial. Many of these positive results could not be achieved in the pressing of flaxseed or grape seed oils under the same conditions. A high negative correlation (r=-92.2) was found between p-anisidine value and δ-tocopherol for grapeseed oil. Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and total carotenoids negatively correlated well (r values above 80) with peroxide values for apricot seed oil. Correlation results showed that carotenoids play an important role in the oxidative stability of the oils, where it was much more evident for apricot seed oil (r=-97.5).
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