Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations


  • D. Arslan Selçuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering
  • M. M. Özcan Selçuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering



Antioxidant, Harvest, Location, Olive fruit, Phenolics, Variety


The phenolic compounds, radical scavenging effect and antioxidant capacity of olive fruits from the “Sarıulak” variety were studied from four different locations: Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke and Karaman in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. They were collected on three different harvest dates (HDs) and in two consecutive crop years. The levels of most of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of the Alanya location were remarkably high among the values (mg/kg) obtained for all location samples mainly on the first HDs, for instance hydroxytyrosol rose to 3596.4, luteolin rose to 269.5, vanillic acid rose to 159.8 and caffeic acid rose to 62.1. The olive fruits from Alanya, which had the highest average rainfall compared to the other locations, showed the highest phenolic content. The olive fruits from Silifke, which had a dramatic decrease in rainfall between the two crop years, showed a reduction in total phenolic content in the following crop year. The highest oleuropein contents (mg/kg) were detected for the fruit samples grown in Silifke (963.5-2981.8) and for Karaman (835.2-655.6). All of the locations showed similar changes in antioxidant activity pointing to an increase with later HDs. The effect of HD on the phenolic compounds such as 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid and hidroxytyrosol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were more dependent on the location factor.


Download data is not yet available.


Amiot MJ, Fleuriet A, Macheix JJ. 1986. Importance and evolution of phenolic compounds in olive during growth and maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 823–826.

Anonymous 1991. Standart Zeytin Çe7itleri Katalogu. Tarım ve Köyi7leri Bakanlıgı Yayınları. No: 334, Seri: 16. Ankara.

Artajo LS, Romero MP, Motilva MJ. 2006. Transfer of phenolic compounds during olive oil extraction in relation to ripening stage of the fruit. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 518-527.

Baiano A, Gambacorta G, Terracone C, Previtali MA, La Notte E. 2009. Characteristics of drupes, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Italian olive fruits. J. Food Lipids. 16, 209–226.

Ben Temime S, Taamalli W, Baccouri B, Abaza L, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2006. Changes in olive oil quality of Chétoui variety according to origin of plantation. J. Food Lipids. 13, 88–99.

Boskou D. 1996. The olive oil composition. In: Olive Oil, Pp. 5–18. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.

Boskou D. 2006. Olive oil chemistry and technology. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA.

Botía JM, Ortuño A, Benavente-García O, Báidez AG, Frías J, Marcos D, Del Río JA. 2001. Modulation of the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. fruits: Their influence on olive oil quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 355–358.

Cerretani L, Bendini A, Rotondi A, Mari M, Lercker G, Toschi T. 2004. Evaluation of the oxidative stability and organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils in relation to olive ripening degree. Progr. Nutr. 6, 50-56.

DIE 2008. Devlet <statistik (Turkish Statistical Institute) Crop Production Statistics, Ankara, Tu.rkiye (

Esti M, Cinquanta L, La Notte E. 1998. Phenolic compounds in different olive varieties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 32–35. PMid:10554192

Gomez-Rico A, Fregapane G, Salvador MD. 2008. Effect of cultivar and ripening on minor components in Spanish olive fruits and their corresponding virgin olive oils. Food Res. Int. 41, 433–440.

Gurbuz S, Kiran-Ciliz N, Yenigun O. 2004. Cleaner production implementation through process modifications for selected SMEs in Turkish olive oil production. J. Clean Prod. 12, 613–621.

Keçeli T, Gordon MH. 2001. The antioxidant activity and stabilility of the phenolic fraction of green olives and extra virgin olive oil. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81, 1391-1396.

Loumou A, Giourga C. 2003. Olive groves: “The life and identity of the Mediterranean”. Agr. Hum. Val. 20, 87–95.

Miller N, Rice-Evans C. 1997. Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS•+ radical cation assay. Free Radic. Res. 26, 195–199. PMid:9161842

Mousa MY, Gerosopoulos D, Metzidakis I, Kiritsakis A. 1996. Effect of altitude on fruit and quality characteristics of “Mastoides” olives. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71, 345-350.

Nergiz C, Engez Y. 2000. Compositional variation of olive fruit during ripening. Food Chem. 69, 55-59.

Ocakoglu D, Tokatlı F, Özen B, Korel F. 2009. Distribution of simple phenols, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Turkish monovarietal extra virgin olive oils for two harvest years. Food Chem. 113, 410-416.

Ögütcü M, Mendes M, Yılmaz E. 2008. Sensorial and physico-chemical characterization of virgin olive Oils Produced in Çanakkale. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 441–456.

Özkaya MT. 2003. Standart zeytin çe7itlerimiz ve bazı özellikleri. (Editör S. Batal) Zeytin yeti7tiriciligi, Hasad Yayıncılık, Ankara.

Ryan D, Robards K. 1998. Phenolic Compounds in Olives. Analyst. 123, 31-44

Ryan D, Robards K, Lavee S. 1999. Changes in phenolic content of olive during maturation. International J. Food Sci. Technol. 34, 265-274.

Ryan D, Antolovich M, Prenzler P, Robards K, Lavee S. 2002. Biotransformations of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. Sci. Hort. 92, 147–176.

Romani A, Mulinacci N, Pinelli P, V incieri F, Cimato A. 1999. Polyphenolic content in five Tuscany cultivars of Olea europaea L. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 964–967. PMid:10552399

Romero C, García P, Brenes M, García A, Garrido A. 2002. Phenolic compounds in natural black Spanish olive varieties. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 489–496.

Romero PM, Jesus Tovar M, Ramo T, Jose Moltiva M. 2003. Effect of crop season on the composition of virgin olive oil with protected designation of origin “Les Garrigues”. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 423–430.

Servili M, Baldioli M, Selvaggini R, Miniati E, Macchioni A, Montedoro G. 1999. High-performance liquid chromatography evaluation of phenols in olive fruit, virgin olive oil, vegetation waters, and pomace and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 873–882.

Servili M, Selvaggini R, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro G, Morozzi G. 2004. Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophilic phenols: Agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil. J. Chrom. A. 1054, 113-127.

Silva S, Gomes L, Leita.o F, Coelho AV, Boas LV. 2006. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Olea europea L. fruits and leaves. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 12, 385-396.

Singh RP, Murthy KNC, Jayaprakasha GK. 2002. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using invitro models. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 81–86. PMid:11754547

Soler-Rivas C, Espín JC, Wichers HJ. 2000. Oleuropein and related compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 1013-1023.<1013::AID-JSFA571>3.0.CO;2-C

Tanılgan K, Özcan MM, Ünver A. 2007. Physical and chemical characteristics of five Turkish olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and their oils. Grasas Aceites. 5, 142-147.

Tetik HD. 1989. Table Olive Technology in Turkey. Olivea. 27, 23-24.

Tovar MJ, Romero MP, Alegre S, Girona J, Motilva MJ. 2002. Composition and organoleptic characteristics of oil from Arbequina olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under deficit irrigation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, 1755–1763.

Ünal K, Nergiz C. 2003. The effect of table olive preparing methods and storage on the composition and nutritive value of olives. Grasas Aceites. 54, 71-76.

Vasquez Roncero A, Janer Del V alle C, Janer Del V alle ML. 1973. Determinacion de los polifenoles totales del aceite de oliva. Grasas Aceites. 24, 350-357.

Vinha AF, Silva BM, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Pereira JA, Oliveira MB. 2002. Development and evaluation of an HPLC/DAD method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from olive fruits. J. Liq. Chrom. Relat. Tech. 25, 151–160. PMCid:1176066

Vinha AF, Ferreres F, Silva BM, V alentao P, Gonçalves A, Pereira JA, Oliveria MB, Seabre RM, Andrade PB. 2005. Phenolic profiles of Portuguese olive fruits (Olea europea L.): Influence of cultivar and geographical origin. Food Chem. 89, 561–568.

Yousfi K, Cert RM, Garcìa JM. 2006. Changes in quality and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils during objectively described fruit maturation. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223, 117–124.

ZAE Olive Research Institute of Turkey 2007. Economics and Statistics of Olive Oil in the World and Turkey. Accessed Jan 2010.




How to Cite

Arslan D, Özcan MM. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2011Dec.30 [cited 2023Mar.26];62(4):453-61. Available from: