Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 4 (2017)

Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0332171

R. Aparicio-Ruiz
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1093-1928

N. Tena
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0933-5192

I. Romero
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3811-1577

R. Aparicio
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5538-4433

D. L. García-González
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC)
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0735-8470

M. T. Morales
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7058-4433

Abstract


Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91) wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil.

Keywords


Freshness; Pigments; Pyropheophytin; Spectrofluorimetry; Virgin olive oil

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Aparicio R, Morales MT, García-González DL. 2012. Towards new analyses of aroma and volatiles to understand sensory perception of olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 114, 1114–1125. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201200193

Aparicio R, Morales MT, Aparicio-Ruiz R, Tena N, García- González DL. 2013. Authenticity of olive oil: Mapping and comparing official methods and promising alternatives. Food Res. Int. 54, 2025–2038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.039

Aparicio-Ruiz R, Aparicio R, García-González DL. 2014. Does "Best Before" date embody extra-virgin olive oil freshness? J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 554–556. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf405220d PMid:24392818

Aparicio-Ruiz R, Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Gandul-Rojas B. 2010. Thermal degradation kinetics of chlorophyll pigments in virgin olive oils. 1. Compounds of series a. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 6200–6208. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9043937 PMid:20426424

Aparicio-Ruiz R, Roca M, Gandul-Rojas B. 2012. Mathematical model to predict the formation of pyropheophytin a in virgin olive oil during storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 7040–7049. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf3010965 PMid:22708655

Australian Standards (AS) 2011. AS5264–2011:Olive Oils and Olive-pomace Oils. Committee FT-034.Sydney, Australia.

Ayton J, Mailer RJ, Graham K. 2012. The Effect of Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality. Canberra (Australia): Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) Publication, No. 12/024. https://1.oliveoiltimes.com/library/Olive-Oil-Storage- Conditions.pdf

California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) 2016. Grade and Labeling Standards for Olive Oil, Refined-Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil. Sacramento, 22 September 2016.

DeEll JR, Toivonen PMA. 1999. Chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of physiological changes in cold-stored broccoli after transfer to room temperature. J. Food Sci. 64, 501–503. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb15071.x

Dupuy N, Le Dréau Y, Ollivier D, Artaud J, Pinatel C, Kister J. 2005. Origin of French virgin olive oil registered designation of origins predicted by chemometric analysis of synchronous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 9361–9368. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051716m

Galeano Díaz T, Durán Merás I, Correa CA, Roldán B, Rodríguez Cáceres MI. 2003. Simultaneous fluorometric determination of chlorophylls a and b and pheophytins a and b in olive oil by partial least squares calibration. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 6934–6940. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034456m PMid:14611149

Gallardo Guerrero L, Roca M, Gandul-Rojas B, Mínguez Mosquera MI. 2005. Effect of storage on the original pigment profile of Spanish virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1039-8

Gertz C, Fiebig HJ. 2006. Pyropheophytin ? - Determination of thermal degradation products of chlorophyll a in virgin olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 108, 1062–1065. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200600164

International Olive Council (IOC). 2015. Sensory analysis of olive oil. Method for the organoleptic assessment of virgin olive oil. COI/T.20/Doc. No 15/Rev. 8. Madrid: Spain.

International Olive Council (IOC). 2016. Trade standard applying to olive oils and olive-pomace oils. COI/T.15/ NC No. 3 Rev.11, July 2016, Madrid, Spain.

ISO. International Organization for Standardization. 2009. ISO 660:2009, Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Determination of acid value and acidity. Geneva, Switzerland.

ISO. International Organization for Standardization. 2007. ISO 3960:2007, Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Determination of peroxide value - Iodometric (visual) endpoint determination. Geneva, Switzerland.

ISO. International Organization for Standardization. 2011. ISO 3656:2011, Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Determination of ultraviolet absorbance expressed as specific UV extinction. Geneva, Switzerland.

Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Gandul-Rojas B, Garrido?Fernández J, Gallardo Guerrero, L. 1990. Pigment presence in virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67, 192–196. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02539624

Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Gandul-Rojas B, Gallardo?Guerrero L. 1992. Rapid method of quantification of chlorophylls and carotenoids in virgin olive oil by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 60–63. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00013a012

Morales MT, Przybylski R. 2013. Olive Oil Oxidation, in Aparicio R, Harwood J (Eds.) Handbook of Olive Oil. Analysis and Properties, second ed., Springer, New York. 479–522. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7777-8_13

Roca M, Mínguez-Mosquera MI. 2001. Changes in chloroplast pigments of olive varieties during fruit ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 89, 832–839. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001000l

South African National Standard (SANS) 2015. Olive Oils and Pomace Olive Oils. SANS1377:2015. (Government Gazette, 22 May, 2015, pag. 32 No. 38803). National Committee SABS. South Africa.

Sayago A, García-González DL, Morales MT, Aparicio R. 2007. Detection of the presence of refined hazelnut oil in refined olive oil by fluorescence spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 2068–2071. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061875l PMid:17319679

Schwartz SJ, Woo SL, von Elbe JH. 1981. High performance liquid chromatography of chlorophylls and their derivatives in fresh and processed spinach. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29, 533–535. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00105a025

Sievers G, Hynninem PH. 1977. Thinlayer chromatography of chlorophylls and their derivatives on cellulose layers. J. Chromatogr. A 134, 359–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)88534-9

Sikorska E, Górecki T, Khmelinskii IV, Sokorski M, Koziol J. 2005. Classification of edible oils using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Chem. 89, 217–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.028

Tena N. 2010. Evolution of major and minor compounds in thermoxidized olive oils: Analyses by spectroscopic and chromatographic methodologies. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Sevilla (Spain).

Tena N, Aparicio R, García-González DL. 2012. Chemical changes of thermoxidized virgin olive oil determined by excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy (EEFS). Food Res. Int. 45, 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.10.015

Tena N, García-González DL, Aparicio R. 2009. Evaluation of virgin olive oil thermal deterioration by fluorescence spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 10505–10511. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf902009b PMid:19919111

Zandomeneghi M, Carbonaro L, Caffarata C. 2005. Fluorescence of vegetable oils: olive oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 759–766. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048742p PMid:15686431




Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es