Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 5 (2013)

Chemical, thermal and viscous characterization of high-oleic sunflower and olive pomace acid oils and derived estolides


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.012513

L. A. García-Zapateiro
Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias. Facultad de Ingeniería. Grupo de Investigación Ingeniería de Fluidos Complejos y Reología de Alimentos (IFCRA). Universidad de Cartagena - Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Universidad de Huelva, Spain

J. M. Franco
Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Universidad de Huelva - Pro2TecS – Chemical Process and Product Technology Research Center. Universidad de Huelva, Spain

C. Valencia
Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Universidad de Huelva - Pro2TecS – Chemical Process and Product Technology Research Center. Universidad de Huelva, Spain

M. A. Delgado
Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Universidad de Huelva - Pro2TecS – Chemical Process and Product Technology Research Center. Universidad de Huelva, Spain

C. Gallegos
Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Universidad de Huelva - Pro2TecS – Chemical Process and Product Technology Research Center. Universidad de Huelva, Spain

M. V. Ruiz-Méndez
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Spain

Abstract


This work deals with the chemical, thermal and viscous characterization of a variety of estolides, prepared from higholeic sunflower and olive pomace acid oils, using different acid-catalyzed synthesis protocols and reaction times. Estolides with weight-average molecular weights between 1.7 and 3.4 times higher than the original acid oils were obtained. The molecular weight of the estolides was higher when using the sulphuric acid-catalyzed method and a reaction time of 3-6 h. Estolides presented higher freezing temperatures than acid oils. In general, viscosity values are related to estolide molecular weight. Significant increments in viscosities were found in comparison with acid oils. Maximum viscosity values were obtained for estolides prepared using the sulphuric acidcatalyzed method. The largest viscosity increments in olive pomace acid oil-derived estolides were observed during the first 6 hours of reaction, due to an increase in the molecular weight; longer reaction times yielded adverse results. The temperature dependence of viscosity for all estolides studied is significantly larger than for the original acid oils.

Keywords


Biolubricants; Byproducts; Estolides; High-oleic sunflower acid oil; Olive pomace acid oil; Thermal analysis; Viscosity

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