Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits
Keywords:Amazonian, Diglycerides, Oxidized triacylglycerols, Palm fruits, Sterols, Tocopherols, Unsaponifiable matter, Vegetable oils, Waxes
This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), inajá (Maximiliana maripa), pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare). The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG), the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG) related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponifiable matter, i.e. hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, sterols and tocopherols have been determined. The results indicate that the extracted oils had good initial quality, with DAG as the major glyceridic compound. The contents of hydrocarbons (50-734 mg·kg–1) and aliphatic alcohols (80-490 mg·kg–1) were highly variable with inajá oil containing the highest contents. In the case of tocopherols, buriti (1567 mg·kg–1) and tucumã (483 mg·kg–1) oils had the highest contents and the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienols was only detected in inajá oil. Finally, high concentrations of sterols were found in all the samples, particularly in the oils from pupunha (4456 mg·kg–1) and tucumã (2708 mg·kg–1), with β-sitosterol being the major sterol in all the samples with percentages between 65 and 83%.
AENOR. 1991. Asociación Española de Normalización, Catálogo de Normas UNE, Madrid.
AOCS. 2001. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 5th. Edn, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (USA).
Aparicio R, Aparicio-Ruíz R. 2000. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques. J. Chromatog. A 881, 93-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00355-1
Bereau D, Benjelloun-Mlayah B, Banoub J, Bravo R. 2003. FA and unsaponifiable composition of five Amazonian palm kernel oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 49-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0649-5
Castellani L, Serrilli AM, Bonadies F, Bianco A. 2008. Natural phenols and diglycerides in virgin olive oil and their relation. Nat. Res. Products 22, 1413-1417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786410701823983 PMid:19023803
Clement CR, Lleras Pérez E, Van Leeuwen J. 2005. O potencial das palmeiras tropicais no Brasil: acertos e fracassos das últimas décadas. Agrociências 9, 67-71.
Costa PA, Ballus CA, Teixeira-Filho J and Godoy HT. 2010. Phytosterols and tocopherols content of pulps and nuts of Brazilian fruits. Food Res. Int. 43, 1603-1606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.04.025
Dobarganes MC, Pérez-Camino MC, Márquez-Ruíz G. 1988. High performance size exclusion chromatography of polar compounds in heated and non-heated fats. Fat Sci. Technol. 90, 308-311.
Dobarganes MC, Velasco J, Dieffenbacher A. 2000. The determination of polar compounds, polymerised triacylglycerols, oxidised triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in fats and oils. Pure Appl.Chem. 72, 1563-1575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac200072081563
IUPAC. 1992. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 7th ed.; International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific: Oxford, UK.
Janssen HJ, Steenbergen H, de Koning S. 2009. The role of comprehensive chromatography in the characterization of edible oils and fats. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111, 1171-1184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200900074
Kamal-Eldin A, Appleqvist LA. 1996. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 31, 671-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02522884 PMid:8827691
Lumley ID. 1988. Polar compounds in heated oils. In Frying of Foods. Principles, Changes, New Approaches. Varela G, Bender AE, Morton ID (eds) Ellis Harwood Ltd. Chichester, England, pp. 166–173.
MacKay DS, Jones PJH. 2011. Phytosterols in human nutrition: Type, formulation, delivery, and physiological function. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 113, 1427-1432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100100
Madawala SRP, Kochhar SP, Dutta PC. 2012. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils. Grasas Aceites 63, 143-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.083811
Montúfar R, Laffargue A, Pintaud J, Hamon S, Avallone S, Dussert S. 2010. Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae): rediscovering a source of high oleic vegetable oil from Amazonia. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 167-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1490-4
Rodrigues AMC, Darnet S, Silva LHM. 2010. Fatty Acid profiles tocopherol of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), patawa (Oenocarpus bataua), tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare), mari (Poraqueiba paraensis) and inajá (Maximiliana maripa) fruits. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 21, 2000-2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532010001000028
Ruiz-Méndez MV, Márquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC. 1997. Relationships between quality of crude and refined edible oils based on quantitation of minor glyceridic compounds. Food Chem. 60, 549-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00029-0
Santos MFG, Marmesat S, Brito ES, Alves RE and Dobarganes MC. 2013. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits. Grasas Aceites 64, 328-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.023513
Silva SM, Sampaio KA, Taham T, Rocco SM, Ceriani R and Meirelles AJA. 2009. Characterization of oil extracted from buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) grown in the Brazilian Amazon region. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 86, 611-616.
Vásquez-Ocnín, PG, Alvarado LF, Solís VC, Torres RP and Mancini-Filho J. 2010. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of the oils from three morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L. f, from the Peruvian Amazon. Grasas Aceites 61, 390-397. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.010110
Vázquez-Roncero A, Vioque E and Mancha-Perelló M. 1965. Componentes químicos de la aceituna. III. Variaciones de los componentes liposolubles durante la maduración. Grasas Aceites 16, 17-23.
Yuyama LKO, Aguiar JPL, Yuyama K, Clement CR, Macedo SHM, Fávaro DIT, Afonso C, Vasconcellos MBA, Pimentel SA, Badolato ESG and Vannucchi, H. 2003. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54, 49-56. PMid:12701237
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.