Grasas y Aceites, Vol 68, No 1 (2017)

Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0800162

B. Aydeniz Güneşer
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2197-5504

E. Yilmaz
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1527-5042

Abstract


The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control) were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, ß-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%). Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications.

Keywords


Cold pressing; Composition; Oil; Orange seed; Quality; Thermal property

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Abdel-Rahman AY. 1980. A study on some Egyption citrus seed oils. Grasas Aceites 31, 331–333.

Anwar F, Naseer R, Bhanger MI, Ashraf S, Talpur FN, Aladedunye FA. 2008. Physico-chemical characteristics of citrus seeds and seed oils from Pakistan. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 321–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1204-3

AOCS 1997. Official Methods and Recommended Practices Vol I and II. Champaign, Illionis, USA: American Oil Chemists Society.

Aydeniz B, Güne?er O, Yılmaz E. 2014. Physico-chemical, sensory and aromatic properties of cold press produced safflower oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91, 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-013-2355-4

Aydeniz B, Yılmaz E. 2012. Enrichment of frying oils with plant phenolic extracts to extend the usage life. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 114, 933–941. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100228

Azadmard-Damirchi S, Habibi-Nodeh F, Hesari J, Nemati M, Achachouei BF. 2010. Effect of pretreatment with microwaves on oxidative stability and nutraceuticals content of oil from rapeseed. Food Chem. 121, 1211–1215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.006

Codex 2012. Codex for vegetable oils, Number: 2012/29. Ankara, Turkey: Turkish Food Codex.

Dündar Emir D, Aydeniz B, Yılmaz E. 2015. Effects of roasting and enzyme pretreatments on yield and quality of cold-pressed poppy seed oils. Turk. J. Agric. For. 39, 260–271. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1409-34

El-Adawy TA, Rahma EH, El-Bedawy AA, Gafar AM. 1999a. Properties of some citrus seeds. Part 3. Evaluation as a new source of protein and oil. Nahrung 43, 385–391. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19991201)43:6<385::AID-FOOD385>3.0.CO;2-V

El-Adawy TA, Rahma EH, El-Bedawy AA, Gafar AM. 1999b. Properties of some citrus seeds. Part 1. Physico-chemical characteristics of proteins. Nahrung 43, 374–378. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19991201)43:6<374::AID-FOOD374>3.0.CO;2-2

Grilo Câmara E, Costa PN, Gurgel CSS, Beserra AFM, Almeida FNS, Dimenstein R. 2014. Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils. Food Sci. Technol. 34, 379–385. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612014005000031

Habib MA, Hammam MA, Sakr AA, Ashoush YA. 1986. Chemical evaluation of Egyptian citrus seeds as potential sources of vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63, 1192– 1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02663951

ISO 1999. Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils -Determination of Individual and Total Sterols Contents- Gas Chromatographic Method, ISO 12228:1999. International Standards Official Methods. Geneve, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 2000. Animal and vegetable fats and oils -Determination of unsaponifiable matter- Method using diethyl ether extraction, ISO 3596. International Standards Official Methods. Geneve, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

Khoddami A, Che Man YB, Roberts TH. 2014. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid profile of seed oils from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extracted by cold pressing. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 116, 553–562. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300416

Lazos ES, Servos DC. 1988. Nutritional and chemical characteristics of orange seed oil. Grasas Aceites 39, 232–234.

Malacrida CR, Kimura M, Jorge N. 2012. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of citrus seed oils. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 18, 399–404. https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.18.399

Matharu AS, de Melo EM, Houghton JA. 2016. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes. Bioresource Technol. 215, 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.039 PMid:26996261

Matthaus B, Özcan MM. 2012. Chemical evaluation of citrus seeds, an agro-industrial waste, as a new potential source of vegetable oils. Grasas Aceites 63, 313–320. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.118411

Minitab 2010. Minitab Statistical Software (Version 16.1.1). Pennsylvania, USA: Minitab, Inc., State College.

O'Brien RD. 2004. Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Russo M, Bonaccorsi I, Inferrera V, Dugo P, Mondello L. 2015. Underestimated sources of flavonoids, limonoids and dietary fiber: Availability in orange's by-products. J. Funct. Foods 12, 150–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.11.008

Saidani M, DhifiI W, Marzouk B. 2004. Lipid evaluation of some Tunisian citrus seed. J. Food Lipids 11, 242–250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2004.01136.x

Saloua F, Eddine NI, Hedi Z. 2009. Chemical composition and profile characteristics of Osage orange Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider seed and seed oil. industrial crops and products. Ind. Crops Prod. 29, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.04.013

Statista 2016. Global fruit production in 2013, by variety (in million metric tons) https://www.statista.com/statistics/264001/worldwide-production-of-fruit-by-variety/ (available at October 2016).

SPSS 1994. SPSS Professional Statistics (Version 10,1). Chicago, IL, USA: SPSS Inc.

TUIK 2014. Turunçgiller. http:www.tuik.gov.tr (available at February 2014).

Williams MA, Hron RJ. 1996. Obtaining oils and fats from source materials, in YH Hui (Ed.) Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, pp. 61–156.

Yılmaz E, Aydeniz B, Güne?er O, Arsunar ES. 2015a. Sensory and physico-chemical properties of cold press produced tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92, 833–842. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2648-x

Yılmaz E, Ö?ütcü M, Arifoglu N. 2015b. Assessment of thermal and textural characteristics and consumer preferences of lemon and strawberry flavored fish oil organogels. J. Oleo Sci. 64, 1049–1056. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess15113 PMid:26369597




Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es