Cold-pressed tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oils: chemical and aromatic profiles, sensory properties, and consumer preferences




Aroma, Cold-pressed oil, Composition, Consumer, Sensory profiles, Tiger nuts


In this study, tiger nut oils produced by cold pressing were characterized by means of physicochemical, compositional, and sensory analyses. The major fatty acids were oleic (70.4%), palmitic (13.3%), and linoleic (11.9%) acids. The main sterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (58.3 and 20.5 mg/100 g), and the main tocopherol was α-tocopherol (234.78 μg/g). Syringic acid, apigenin and vanillin were the major phenolic compounds quantified. The cold-pressed oils crystallized at -9.12 °C and melted at -1.87 °C. A sensory panel described the oil with 5 sensory descriptive (almond, nutty, roasted, straw, sweety, soil) terms. A consumer test indicated that appearance, smell/aroma, and taste/flavor scores were above 4.0 on a 5-point hedonic scale. In conclusion, tiger nut oils with retained nutrients and specific aroma could be produced by the cold-pressing technique. Further studies for food and functional food applications of this gourmet oil are anticipated.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed SMS, Arafat SM, Abbas SM, Moursy FI. 2019. Nutritional value of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus l.) tubers and its products. J. Bio. Chem. Environment Sci. 14 (1), 301-318.

AOAC. 2002. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (17th ed.). Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

AOCS. 1998. Official Methods and Recommended Practice of the American Oil Chemist's Society (5th ed.). American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.

Asare PA, Kpankpari R, Adu MO, Afutu E, Adewumi AS. 2020. Phenotypic characterization of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.) from major growing areas in Ghana. Hindawi Scien. World J. 1, 1-11. PMid:32831807 PMCid:PMC7428959

Aydeniz Güneşer, B. 2016. Soğuk pres tekniğiyle üretilen narenciye çekirdek yağlarının karakterizasyonu (Characterization of cold-press produced citrus seeds oils). Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi (Ph.D. Theis), 169 s. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey.

Codina-Torrella I, Guamis B, Trujillo AJ. 2015. Characterization and comparison of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.) from different geographical origin: physico-chemical characteristics and protein fractionation. Indus. Crops Prod. 65, 406-414.

Duman E. 2019. Some physico-chemical properties, fatty acid compositions, macro-micro minerals and sterol contents of two variety tigernut tubers and oils harvested from East Mediterranean region. Food Sci. Tech. 39 (2), 610-615.

Franke S, Fröhlich K, Werner S, Böhm V, Schöne F. 2010. Analysis of carotenoids and vitamin e in selected oilseeds, press cakes and oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 112, 1122-1129.

Grilo CE, Costa PN, Gurgel CSS, Beserra AFM, Almeida FNS, Dimenstein R. 2014. Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils. Food Sci. Tech. (Campinas), 34 (2), 379-385.

Krist S, Stuebiger G, Bail S, Unterweger H. 2006. Detection of adulteration of poppy seed oil with sunflower oil based on volatiles and triacylglycerol composition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6385-6389. PMid:16910734

Lasekan O. 2012. Volatile constituents of roasted tigernut oil (Cyperus esculentus L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 93, 1055-1061. PMid:22936608

Maduka N, Ire FS. 2018. Tigernut plant and useful application of tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus) - a review. Curr. J. Appl. Sci. Technol. 29 (3), 1-23.

Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT. 1991. Sensory Evaluation Techniques. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

Miao W-B, Li Y-J, Ma S-Y, Jiang J-H, Liu H-M, Cai X-S, Qin Z, Wang X-D. 2022. Effects of cold-pressing conditions on physicochemical and functional properties of cold-pressed tigernut oil and starch isolated from press-cake. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 57, 662-675.

Moulehi İ, Bourgou S, Ourghemmi İ, Tounsi MS. 2012. Variety and ripening ımpact on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seeds extracts. Indust. Crops Prod. 39, 74-80.

ISO. 1991. Animal and vegetable fats and oils-determination of unsaponifiable matter-method using diethyl ether extraction. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva.

Oladele AK, Adebowale JO, Bamidele OP. 2017. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of brown and yellow varieties of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.). Nigerian Food J. 35 (1), 51-59.

Roselló-Soto E, Barba FJ, Lorenzo JM, Dominguez R, Pateiro M, Mañes J, Moltó JC. 2019. Evaluating the impact of supercritical-CO2 pressure on the recovery and quality of oil from "horchata" by-products: fatty acid profile, α-tocopherol, phenolic compounds, and lipid oxidation parameters. Food Res. Inter. 120, 888-894. PMid:31000310

TSE. 1999. International Standards Official Methods 12228:1999, Animal and Vegetable Fats And Oils-Determination of İndividual and Total Sterols Contents-Gas Chromatographic Method. Geneve, Switzerland.

Vallverdú-Queralt A, Regueiro J, Alvarenga JFR, Torrado X, Lamuela-Raventos RM. 2014. Home cooking and phenolics: effect of thermal treatment and addition of extra virgin olive oil on the phenolic profile of tomato sauces. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 3314-3320. PMid:24650040

Vega-Morales T, Mateos-Díaz C, Pérez-Machín R, Wiebe J, Gericke NP, Alarcón C, López-Romero JM. 2019. Chemical composition of industrially and laboratory processed Cyperus esculentus rhizomes. Food Chem. 297, 124896-124992. PMid:31253254

Yeboah SO, Mitei YC, Ngila JC, Wessjohann L, Schmidt J. 2012. Compositional and structural studies of the oils from two edible seeds: tiger nut, Cyperus esculentum, and asiato, Pachira insignis, from Ghana. Food Res. Inter. 47 (2), 259-266.

Yoon SH. 2016. Optimization of the refining process and oxidative stability of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil for edible purposes. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 25 (1), 85-90. PMid:30263240 PMCid:PMC6049371

Yu Y, Lu X, Zhang T, Zhao C, Guan S, Pu Y, Gao F. 2022. Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.): nutrition, processing, function and applications. Foods 11, 601. PMid:35206077 PMCid:PMC8871521

Warra AA, Babatola LJ, Omodolapo AA, Ibraheem BD. 2017. Characterization of oil extracted from two varieties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) tubers. Amer. J. Heter. Chem. 3, 28-36.

Zhang Z-S, Jia H-J, Li X-D, Liu Y-L, Wei A-C, Zhu W-X. 2022. Effect of drying methods on the quality of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculents L.) and its oil. LWT. 167, 113827.



How to Cite

Keskin Uslu E, Yılmaz E. Cold-pressed tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oils: chemical and aromatic profiles, sensory properties, and consumer preferences. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2024Mar.14 [cited 2024May25];75(1):e537. Available from:




Funding data

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi
Grant numbers FDH-2020-3487

Most read articles by the same author(s)