Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development


  • W. Herchi Laboratoire de Biochimie des Lipides, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis
  • S. Bahashwan College of Pharmacy, Taibah University
  • H. Trabelsi Laboratoire de Biochimie des Lipides, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis
  • S. Boukhchina Laboratoire de Biochimie des Lipides, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis
  • H. Kallel Laboratoire de Biochimie des Lipides, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis
  • S. Rochut UPMC University Paris
  • C. Pepe UPMC University Paris



APPI-MS, Flaxseed, HPLC, Maturity, Protein Fractions, Proximate Composition


Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs) during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min). The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins) followed by globulin (33%) and glutelin fractions (11%). Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguilera MC, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Mesa MD, Gil A. 2000. Do MUFA and PUFA have beneficial effects on development of cardiovascular disease? In: Pandai SG (Eds) Recent research developments in lipids. Adv. Lipid Res. 1, 369–390.

American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS). 1993. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th edn., edited by D. Firestone, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1984. Official Methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, fourteenth ed. AOAC, Arlington, Method 28.110.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2005. In: Firestone D (Ed) Official methods of analysis of the Association of the Official Analytical Chemists. Assoc Off Anal Chem Inc, VA.

Attoumbré J, Boubé A, Laoualy M, Bienaimé C, Dubois F, Baltora-Rosset S. 2011. Investigation of lignan accumulation in developing Linum usitatissimum seeds by immunolocalization and HPLC. Phytochem. Lett. 4, 194–198.

Baccouri B, Zarrouk W, Krichene D, Nouairi I, Ben Youssef N, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. 2007. Influence of Fruit Ripening and Crop Yield on Chemical Properties of Virgin Olive Oils from Seven Selected Oleasters (Olea europea L.). J. Agron. 6, 388–396.

Barrett MA, Larkin PJ. 1977. Milk and beef production in the tropics. London: ELBS and Oxford University Press.

Bewley JD, Black N. 1978. In Physiology and biochemistry of seeds in relation to germination. New York: Springer Verlag. 1, 306–307.

Bligh EG. Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911–917. PMid:13671378

Chavan UD, Mckenzie DB, Shahidi F. 2001. Protein classification of beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.). Food Chem. 75, 145–153.

Chen Z, Ilarslan H, Palmer RG, Shoemaker RC.1998. Development of protein bodies and accumulation of carbohydrates in a soybean (Leguminosae) shrivelled seed mutant. Am. J. Bot. 85, 492–499. PMid:21684931

Douce R. 1964. Identification et dosage de quelques glycérophosphosphatides dans des souches normales et tumorales de scosonères cultivés in vitro. CR Acad. Sci. 259, 3066–3068.

Epaminondas PS, Araujo KLGV, Lima de Souza A, Silva MCD, Queiroz N, Souza AL, Soledade LEB, Santos IMG, Souza AG. 2011. Influence of toasting on the nutritious and thermal properties of flaxseed. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106, 551–555.

Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GMA. 1957. Simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509. PMid:13428781

Gutiérrez F. 1989. Determination of virgin olive oils stability: Comparization between activated oxygen (AOM) and Rancimat Methods. Grasas Aceites. 40, 1–5.

Herchi W, Harrabi S, Sebei K, Rochut S, Boukhchina S, Pepe C, Kallel H. 2009. Phytosterols accumulation in the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 47, 880–885. PMid:19616960

Herchi W, Sakouhi F, Arraez-Roman D, Segura-Carretero A, Boukhchina S, Kallel H, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. 2011. Changes in the Content of Phenolic Compounds in Flaxseed Oil during Development. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 1135–1142.

Herchi W, Trabelsi H, Ben Salah H, Yuan Zhao Y, Boukhchina S, Kallel H, Curtis JM. 2012. Changes in the triacylglycerol content of flaxseeds during development using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionizationmass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11, 904–911.

Hosseinian FS, Muir AD, Westcott ND, Krol ES. 2006. Antioxidant capacity of flaxseed lignans in two model systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 835–840.

Hunt C, Burn P, Adamczuk ZC. 1987. Proximate composition and fat type of three popular take-away meals. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 22, 669–675.

Kaur M, Singh N. 2007. Characterization of protein isolates from different Indian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Chem. 102, 366–374.

Kohno A, Nanmori T. 1991. Changes in α-and β-amylase activities during germination of seeds of alfalfa. Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 459–466.

Lee YI, Yeung EC, Lee N, Chung MC. 2008. Embryology of Phalaenopsis amabilis var. Formosa: embryo development. Bot Stud. 49, 139–146.

Lei B, Li Chen. Oomah BD, Mazza G. 2003. Distribution of cadmium-binding components in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed. J Agric Food Chem. 51, 814–821. PMid:12537463

Mangold HK. 1964. Thin layer chromatography of lipids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 47, 762–773.

Miquel M, Browse J. 1997. Lipid biosynthesis in developing seeds, in: J. Kigel, G. Galili (Eds.), Seed Development and Germination. Dekker, USA, 169–193.

Monma M, Sugimoto T, Monma M, Kawanura Y, Saio K. 1991. Starch breakdown in developing soybean seeds. Agr. Biol. Chem. 55, 67–71.

Mueller K, Eisner P, Yoshie-Stark Y, Nakada R, Kirchhoff E. 2010. Functional properties and chemical composition of fractionated brown and yellow linseed meal (Linum usitatissimum). J. Food Eng. 98, 453–460.

Murtaza G, Asghar R. 2012. α-amylase activities during seed development and germination in pea (pisum sativum L) treated with salicylic acid. Pak J. Bot. 44, 1823−1829.

Olsen OA. 2001. Endosperm development: cellularization and cell fate specification. Annu Rev Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52, 233–267. PMid:11337398

Oomah B. 2001. Flaxseed as a functional food source. J. Sci. Food Agr. 81, 889–894.

Osborne TB. 1924. The vegetable proteins. Longmans, Green and Co., London, 51–56.

Pang PP, Pruitt RE, Meyerowitz EM. 1988. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, expression and evolution of 12S seed storage protein genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol. Biol. 11, 805–820. PMid:24272631

Saldivar X, Wanga YJ, Chen P, Hou A. 2011. Changes in chemical composition during soybean seed development. Food Chem. 124, 1369–1375.

Wanasundara PKJPD, Shahidi F, Brosnan ME. 1999. Changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed nitrogenous compounds during germination. Food Chem. 65, 289–295.



How to Cite

Herchi W, Bahashwan S, Trabelsi H, Boukhchina S, Kallel H, Rochut S, Pepe C. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2014Jun.30 [cited 2024Apr.21];65(2):e022. Available from: