Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts


  • F. S. Taha Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre
  • S. M. Wagdy Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre
  • M. M.M. Hassanein Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre
  • S. F. Hamed Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre




Anticarcinogenic, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Hulls, Sunflower


This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can be concluded that sunflower hull is a potential source of nutraceuticals.


Download data is not yet available.


A.O.A.C. 2005. Official methods of Analysis, 15th, ed. Association of Official Analytical chemists, Washington DC.

Alberto MR, Farias M.E, Manca da Nadra MC. 2001. Effect of gallic acid and catechin on Lactobacillus hilgardii 5w growth and metabolism of organic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 4359-4363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0101915 PMid:11559138

Alberto MR, Farias ME, Manca da Nadra MC. 2002. Effect of wine phenolic compounds on Lactobacillus hilgardii 5w viability. J. Food Prot. 65, 148-150.

Almeida AA, Farah A, Silva DA, Nunan EA, Gloria MB. 2006. Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected chemical compounds against enterobacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 8738-8743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0617317 PMid:17090115

Al-Shaikhan MS, Howard LR, Miller JC Jr. 1995. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato. J. Food Sci. 60, 341-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb05668.x

AmarowiczR, Naczk M, ShahidiF. 2000. Antioxidant activity of crude tannin of canola and rapeseed hulls. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 956-961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0151-0

Asamarai AM, Addis BP, Epley RJ, Krick TP. 1996. Wild rice hull antioxidants. J. Agr. Food Chem. 44, 126-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf940651c

Balaya KJ, Clifford MN. 1995. Individual chlorogenic acid, caffeine contents in commercial grades of wet and dried processed Indian green robusta coffee. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 104-108.

Belkaid A, Currie J, Desgagnes J, Annabi B. 2006. The chemopreventive properties of chlorogenic acid reveal a potential new role for the microsomal glucose-6- phosphate translocase in brain tumor. Cancer Cell International 6,7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-6-7 PMid:16566826    PMCid:1440869

Benavente-García O, Castillo J, Marin FR, Ortuno A, Del Rio JA. 1997. Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 4505-4515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970373s

Bravo L. 1998. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutrition Reviews 56, 317-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1998.tb01670.x

Cancalon P. 1971. Chemical composition of sunflower seed hulls. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48, 629-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02544577

Chang LW, Yen WJ, Huang SC, Duh PD. 2002. Antioxidant activity of sesame coat. Food Chem. 78, 347-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00119-X

Chun OK, Kim D, Smith N, Schroeder D, Han JT, Lee CY. 2005. Daily consumption of phenolics and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the American diet. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85, 1715-1724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2176

DeLeonardis A, Macciola V, Di Dominico N. 2005. A first pilot study to produce food antioxidant from sunflower seed shells (Helianthus annus). Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 107, 220-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200401021

Duh PD, Yen GC.1995. Changes in antioxidant activity of and components of methanolic extract of peanut hulls irradiated with ultraviolet light. Food Chem. 54, 127-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)00148-X

Estevinho L, Pereira AP, Moreira L, Dias LG, Pereira E. 2008. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 3774-3779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.062 PMid:18940227

Freeman DW. 2008. Use of by-products and nontraditional feeds for horses. http://en.engormix.com/MA-equines/nutrition/articles/use-byprduct-nontraditionalfeeds-t1082/141-p0.htm

Friedman M. 1997. Potato polyphenols: Role in Plant and in Diet. In “Antinutrients and Phytochemicals in Food”. Ed. F. Shahidi, chapter 5, pp66-68. ACS Press. Washington, D.C. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-1997-0662.ch005

Haslam E. 1981. Vegetable tannins. In “ The Biochemistry of Plants”. E. E Conn (ed.), Vol. 7. Academic Press, London and New York. pp. 527-556.

Hung Y, Sava VM, Makan SY, Chen THJ. 2002. Antioxidant activity of melanins derived from tea: Comparison of different oxidative states. Food Chem. 78, 233-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00403-4

Jiang Y, Kusama K,Takayama E, Wataanabe S, Sagakami H.2000. Induction of cytotoxicity by chlorogenic acid in human oral tumor cell lines. Phytomedicine 7, 483-491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80034-3

Kallithraka S, García-Viguera C, Bridle P, Bakker J. 1996. Survey of solvents for the extraction of grape seed phenolics. Phytochem. Anal. 6, 265-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2800060509

Kishimoto N, Kakino Y, Iwai K, Mochida K, Fujita T. 2005. In vitro antibacterial, antimutagenic and anti-influenza virus activity of caffeic acid phenyl esters. Biocontrol Sci. 10, 155-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.4265/bio.10.155

Kotzekidou P, Giannakidis P, Boulamatsis A. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts and essential oils against foodborn pathogens in vitro and on the fate of inoculated pathogens in chocolate. Swiss Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 41, 119-127.

Kuda TM, TsuneKawa H, Goto H, Araki T. 2005. Antioxidant property of four edible algae harvested in Noto Peninsula, Japan. J. Food Compos. Anal. 18, 625-633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.015

Ky CL, Noirot M, Hamon S. 1997. Comparison of five purification methods for chlorogenic acid in green coffee bean. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 786-790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9605254

Lattanzio V, Lattanzio VMT, Cardinali A. 2006. Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. In “Phytochemistry: Advances in Research” Phillipo Emperato Ed., chapter 2, pp 23-69, Research Signpost Publisher, India.

Lin UH, Lee JY, Kang SK, Kim JK. 2005. A phenolic compound, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (Chlorogenic acid) is a new type and strong matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor: isolation and identification from methanol extract of Euonymus alatus. Life Sci. 77, 2760-2769. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.02.028 PMid:16005473

Malberg AG, Theander O. 1985. Determination of chlorogenic acid in potato tubers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33, 549-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00063a052

Manach C, Mazur A, Scalbert A. 2005. Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 16, 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200502000-00013 PMid:15650567

Mason T L, Wasserman BP. 1987. Inactivation of red beet beta-glucan synthase by native and oxidized phenolic compounds. Phytochem. 26, 2197-2202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84683-X

Mohamed GF, Taha FS. 2005. Extraction of sunflower hulls: their antioxidant activity on lipids of cooked mackerel fish. Alex. J. Food. Sci. Technol. 2, 11-23.

Naczk M, Shahidi F. 2003.Phenolic compounds in major oilseeds and plant oils. In ‘’Phenolics in Food and Neutraceuticals” Chapter 3, CRC Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203508732.ch3

Nadeem M, Anjum FM, Arshad MU, Hussain S. 2010. Chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of different sunflower hybrids and their utilization in bread. African J. Food Sci. 4, 618-626.

Onyenecho SN, Hettiarachchy NS. 1991. Effect of navy bean hull extract on the oxidative stability of soy and sunflower oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 1701-1704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00010a600

Pedrosa MM, Muzquiz M, García-Vallejo C, Burbano C, Cuadrado C, Ayet G, Robredo, LM. 2000. Determination of caffeic and chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in different sunflower seeds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 459-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(200003)80:4<459::AID-JSFA549>3.0.CO;2-O

Pomenta JV, Burns EE.1971. Factors affecting chlorogenic, quinic, and caffeic acid levels in sunflower kernels. J. Food Sci. 36, 490-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1971.tb06395.x

Puupponen-Pimia R, Nohynek L, Meier C, Kahkonen M, Heinonen M, Hopia A. 2001. Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90, 494-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01271.x PMid:11309059

Rauha JP, Remes S, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Kahkonen M. 2000. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 56,3-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00218-X

Reguant C, Bordons A, Arola L, Rozes N. 2000. Influence of phenolic compounds on the physiology of Oenococcusoeni. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88, 1065-1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01075.x PMid:10849183

Rodriguez Vaquero LR, Serravalle T, Manca de Nadra MC, Strasser de Saad AM. 2010. Antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds from argentinean herbs infusions. Food Control 21, 779-785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.10.017

Ryan D, Robards K. 1998. Phenolic compounds in olives, critical review. Analyst 123: (31R - 44R). http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a708920a

Salunkhe DK, Chavan JK, Adsule RN, Kadam SS. Rice. In World oilseeds: Chemistry, technology, and utilization, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1992. pp. 424-448.

Samman S, Lyons Wall P M, Cook NC. 1998. Flavonoids and coronary heart disease: Dietary perspectives. In “Flavonoids in health and Disease” C. A. Rice-Evans and Lester Packer Eds., Marcel Dekker. N.Y.

Singer FA. 2005. Utilization of Some Oil Industry Wastes for Producing Organic Acids for Edible Use. Msc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Food Science. Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, McMahon J, Vistica D, Warren J T, Bokesch H, Kenney S, Boyd M R.1990. New calorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer drug screening. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82, 1107-1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/82.13.1107

Spirad G, Rao NSM. 1987. Effect of methods to remove polyphenols from sunflower meal on the physicochemical properties of the proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35, 962-967. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00078a025

Sun T, Ho Chi-Tang. 2005. Antioxidant activities of buckwheat extracts. Food Chem. 90, 743-749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.035

Szydlowska-Czerniak A, Trokowski K, Szlyk E. 2011. Optimization of extraction conditions of antioxidants from sunflower shells before and after enzymatic treatment. Ind. Crop Prod. 33, 123-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.09.016

Trugo LC, Macrae R. 1984. Chlorogenic acid composition of instant caffees. Analyst 109, 263-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9840900263 PMid:6721155

Turkmen N, Sari F, Velioglu YS. 2006. Effect of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate polyphenols determined by ferrous tartarate and folinciocalteu methods. Food Chem. 99, 838-841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.034

Watanabe M, Ohshita Y, Tsushida T. 1997. Antioxidant compounds from buckwheat hulls. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1039-1044 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9605557

Weiz GM, Kammerer DR, Carle R. 2009. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from sunflower kernels and shells by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Food Chem. 115, 758-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.074

Yagazaki K, Miura Y, Okauchi R, Furuse T. 2004. Inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid and its related compounds on the invasion of hepatoma cells in culture. Cytotechnol. 33, 229-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008141918852 PMid:19002830




How to Cite

Taha FS, Wagdy SM, Hassanein MM, Hamed SF. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2012Jun.30 [cited 2022Dec.7];63(2):184-92. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1365